Mobile Generations and the rise of 5G


(Root) #1

Greeting to the Community of 0x00sec ,
I am Nanobyte and this is my first post on this forum so please excuse me for any mistakes or any misinfo that I may write!
This essay is about the rise of mobile technologies and the rise of the newest technology the 5G so without further a do …
For someone who may not be familiar with the “G” staff : :stuck_out_tongue:

1G refers to the first generation of mobile communications and it is simply the beggining of every wireless technology followed . It simply used the analog telecommunications standards that were introduced in the 1980s . People couldn’t do anything more that just make the classic phone call that we all know today .

2G comes next after a decade and introduces the abiltity of the existing mobile network to transmit data . Do not confuse the data with internet data though … By data in 2G we refer in the classic SMS that we know today . Well it was a big thing at the time …

3G followed and finally allows users to surf the web through their mobile phones with small bandwidth (Approx. 200Kbps - 1Mbps / sec ) . Also introducing the classic GPS as we know it today.

Fast Forward 4G also known as LTE (Long Term Evolution) joins the game in the begging of the 2010s. Higher speeds are introduced (Approx. 100Mbps - 1 Gbps ) and people are starting to use their mobile phones even more outdoors . However there where problems as concerns the 4G networking especially with the speed of the network as it was promised 100mpbs - 1gpbs / user and it never even made it to 40mbps … So here is the trick 4G+ (LTE-A) is placed as an idea in order to inprove the already existing 4G network to solve the speed problem among with the latency and the bugs that existed. So here we are in 2018 using 4G+ but is that all?

5G is an upcoming network that promises even more ! 5G wants to connect everything possible in the mobile networking. From self-driving vehicles to e-health care systems and the legandary “unsecure” IoT . Promises latencies less that 1msec so that it will be imposible for the human eye to realise any latency (although that will become really controversial as we are going to have and machine to machine communications and not just machine to human) .

So what’s the deal with 5G ?

5G will have some new technologies that will change mobile communications and will elavate them for good. Millimeter waves will open more frequencies (30 - 300 Ghz) so that more bandwidth will be given to any kind of device .
The problem however is that millimeter waves are too vulnerable when we talk about transmitting them through air where there are hundreds of disruptions for the signal (rain , sounds , walls) . So we need Small Cells technologies . For someone who may not know mobile technologies use cellular technologies which someone can read more here . Small cells will have smaller ranges for an antenna to work so that the signal will be easier to be transimmited however for smaller antennas to exist the number must increase drammatically and so must the cost . MIMO (or Multiple Input Multiple Output) is the next big technological step for 5G . For this technology the antennas are going to increase in the way they accept and send data . More about that here . Last but not least 5G will allow full duplex communications over data transmitted through the devices . The phenomenon which allowed radiowaves to only transmit or recieve is called Reciprocity and it is hopped to be solved in 5G .

The above was the knowledge which I possess for the mobile networks . Please feel free to correct anything (if wrong) and to add if you happen to know anything more . Hope u liked it and in the next essay I’ll try to analyse potential security problems with these technologies .